Arab and Persian astrologyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Much of the survival of classical sciences like astronomy, mathematics, geography and philosophy in the Western world is due to the fact that it was preserved and used by the Arab world from about the 8th Century, when Europe was going through its Dark Ages. Astrology, being linked to astronomy at this stage, was also one of those disciplines preserved.
Centres of learning in medicine and astronomy/astrology were set up in Baghdad and Damascus, and the Caliph Al-Mansur of Baghdad established a major observatory and library in the city, making it the world's astronomical centre. During this time knowledge of astronomy was greatly increased, and the astrolab was invented by Al Fazari. So much was knowledge increased by the Arabs that even today a great many star names are Arabic in origin. Here is a short list for some of the most prominent, with their original meaning:
|Rasolgethi||"Head of the Kneeling One"|
|Rigel||"Foot of the Great One"|
The meaning of the star names cannot really be understood without reference to the constellation of which they are a part. Further details of the star names, along with a greater list of others can be found in the article: List of traditional star names. Some astrologers still include a few of the stars in their charts today, along with the usual planets. For example, Aldabaran is said to signify confidence, energy and leadership qualities, while Vega is said to indicate good fortune in worldy ambitions.
The Arab astrologers defined a new form of astrology called electional astrology that could be used for all manner of divination in everyday life, such as the discovery of propitious moments for the undertaking of a journey, or the beginning of a business venture etc. They also were the first to speak of 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' indications, rather than categorical events.
Albumasur or Abu Ma'shar (805 - 885) was the greatest of the Arab astrologers. His treatise 'Introductoriam in Astronomium' spoke of how 'only by observing the great diversity of planetary motions can we comprehend the unnumbered varieties of change in this world'. The 'Introductoriam' was one of the first books to find its way in translation through Spain and into Europe in the Middle Ages, and was highly influential in the revival of astrology and astronomy there.
The Arabs also combined the disciplines of medicine and astrology by being linking the curative properties of herbs with specific zodiac signs and planets.  Mars, for instance, was considered hot and dry and so ruled plants with a hot or pungent taste - like hellebore, tobacco or mustard. These beliefs were adopted by European herbalists like Culpeper right up until the development of modern medicine.
The Arabs also developed a system called Arabic parts by which the difference between the ascendant and each planet of the zodiac was calculated. This new position then became a 'part' of some kind. For example the 'part of fortune' is found by taking the difference between the sun and the ascendant and adding it to the moon. If the 'part' thus calculated was in the 10th House in Libra, for instance, it suggested that money could be made from some kind of partnership.
The Persians too made a significant contribution to astronomy and astrology. Al Khwarizmi was the most famous of these. He was a great mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. He is considered to be the father of algebra and the algorithm , and introduced the concept of the number zero to the Western world.
Another famous Persian astrologer and astronomer was Qutb al-Din al Shirazi (1236 - 1311). He wrote critiques of the Almagest, the famous Arabic translation of the work of Ptolemy. The Almagest was the means by which Ptolemy's work was re-introduced into Europe, as the original European copies had been lost. He produced two prominent works on astronomy: 'The Limit of Accomplishment Concerning Knowledge of the Heavens' in 1281 and 'The Royal Present' in 1284, both of which commented upon and improved on Ptolemy's work, particularly in the field of planetary motion. Al-Shirazi was also the first person to give the correct scientific explanation for the formation of a rainbow.
Ulugh Beg was another notable Persian mathematician and astronomer, who was sultan of Persia in the fifteenth century. He built an observatory in 1428 and produced the first original star map since Ptolemy which corrected the position of many stars, and included many new ones.
Astrology was in favour in the Islamic world when it was associated with the sciences of astronomy, mathematics and medicine. When in later times it became separated from those disciplines, it was regarded as linked to superstition and fortune-telling. Modern Islamic views of astrology are therefore negative for the most part, as fortune-telling is forbidden in the Koran.This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. Revisions and additions are welcome. * Abraham ibn Ezra
* Abraham Zacuto
* Al-fadl ibn Naubakht
* 'Ali ibn Ridwan
* Biblical Magi (the "Three Wise Men")
* Haly Abenragel
* Hypatia of Alexandria
* Ibn Arabi
* Ibn Yunus
* Ibrahim al-Fazari
* Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
* Muhammad al-Fazari
* Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
* Sharafeddin Tusi
Some of the famouse astrologers that you named here are Iranian but they known as Arab, like AlBiruni that he was "Abureyhan Biruni" or "Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi".
HHIS I should have thouhgt of that!
zak 07.09.2011. 10:49
im pretty sure vince is a wierdo